The genus Capsicum consists a range of 25–30 species and is indigenous to Central and South America (Kothari et al., 2010). Plant Systematics and Evolution 165:159-188. Neotropical Entomology 39:1002-1007. glabriusculum. In southern Mexico chili pepper is cultivated in backyard gardens as well as in extensive areas as highly managed crop in Southern Mexico (Pérez-Casteñeda et al., 2008). Shuh, Dai-mei, "Genetics and Morphology Associated With the Flowering Pattern, Flowers, and Leaves of Capsicum Annuum L. And Capsicum Chinense Jacq." Journal of Bioscience 37:791-806. Values with the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Scott-Knott cluster analysis (P < 0.05). Balzarini, L. González, M. Tablada, y C.W. glabriusculum: Taxonomy, Plant Morphology, Distribution, Genetic Diversity, Genome Sequencing, and Phytochemical Compounds Corina Hayano‐Kanashiro Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. The record derives from WCSP (in review) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Evaluation of whitefly population in pepper leaves Population densities of whitefly adults, eggs and nymphs (first to fourth instar) in pepper leaves were evaluated in five sampling times. [ Links ], Lapidot, M., and M. Friedmann. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. 1979. 110 p. International Plant Genetic Resource Institute (IPGRI), Rome, Italy; Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC), Taipei, Taiwan, and Centro Agrondmico Tropical de Investigación y Ensenanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica. The subgroup 1 included genotypes: 'Pijadegato', 'Chawa', 'Miraparriba', and 'Blanco' (Euclidean distance between 10 and 12.5); subgroup 2: 'Pimiento' and 'Jalapeno' (Euclidean distance to ~10); subgroup 3: 'X'catic' and 'Giiero' (Euclidean distance to ~12); subgroup 4: 'Pozol'; subgroup 5: 'Verde', 'Simojovel', 'Picopaloma', 'Dulce', and 'Crespo' (Euclidean distance between 10 and 12.5); group 6: 'Sucurre'; and group 7: 'Maax', 'Bolita', and 'Amaxito' (Euclidean distance between 10 and 12). In particular, capsaicin creates a burning sensation ("hotness"), which in extreme cases can last for several hours after ingestion. Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an annual herb that belongs to Solanaceae family (Greenleaf, 1986).It has been used for thousands of years and has become an important ingredient of cooking. [ Links ], Castañón-Nájera, G., L. Latournerie-Moreno, J.M. 2012. Genetic and Molecular Research 9:283-294. and Capsicum frutescens Linn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. On the other hand, the highest CV of our pepper collection were observed in calyx annular constriction (CAC), number of branch bifurcation (NBB) and calyx pigmentation (CP), which showed CV values of 576.9, 287.06, and 190.03, respectively (Table 2). Host plant resistance to whiteflies with emphasis on cassava as a case study. Interaction between Bemisia tabaci, Begomovirus and plant species in Latin America and the Caribbean. [8] The single flowers are an off-white (sometimes purplish) color while the stem is densely branched and up to 60 cm (24 in) tall. In horticultural crops, enormous losses caused by this biotic constraint have been widely recognized (Berlinger, 1986; Lapidot and Friedmann, 2002; Morales, 2011; Borah and Dasgupta, 2012). Response of peppers to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex Pepper genotypes showed distinct levels of susceptibility to B. tabaci. Incidence and severity of viral symptoms in the genotypes of Capsicum annuum. [ Links ], Pérez-Casteñeda, L., M.G. On the other hand, Begomovirus resistance has been suggested to be due to constraints in viral movement, which in turn leads to no symptoms, delayed symptoms, and symptom remission (Anaya-López et al., 2003). The 94% total variability obtained in PCA indicated an adequate percentage of variation, as indicated by Pla (1986), who suggests at least an 80% total variability. Capsicum annuum can be dicult to separate from the cultivated C. chinense (the hottest pepper) and C. frutescens (tabasco pepper) and their morphological features can overlap. abbreviatum and var. en Tabasco, Mexico. CONCLUSIONS. The trial was conducted in a Fisher block design with 3 replicates at the experimental … Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation studies in chilli. Bold arrows Nymphs, Adults, Severity and Incidence refer to complex B. tabaci-Begomovirus. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill (Loaiza-Figueroa et al., 1989). They are used as spices, vegetable and medicine. Pepper for the fresh market can be harvested green (before maturity) or at maturity. Plants were fertilized with the formula 250-200-150, supplied in the dripping irrigation system. Cuadernos de Biodiversidad 27. p. 11-22. The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as pepper plants. Identification of silverleaf whitefly in pepper. Leaf area was measured in a leaf area meter (LI-3100C, Li-Cor, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). White, J.A. Table 4. Capsicum de capsa, capsula: el pimiento. Resistance to either B. tabaci or Begomovirus has been previously studied in various groups of horticultural crops, such as tomato, pepper, bean, cotton, soybean, and cassava. Begomovirus research in India: A critical appraisal and the way ahead. [ Links ], Morales, F.J. 2011. Carson, et al. The taxonomy-based pollen morphology of 6 Capsicum annuum cultivars were studied in China. The root system morphologies of pepper and melon at the harvest stage were examined as one way of obtaining the goal. Notably, genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. Table 5. This type of studies might have bigger significance as in field B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex occurs concomitantly. The soil type is litosol/ rendzina, usually stony, highly alkaline, and with low content of organic matter (Cabadas et al., 2010). The second major cluster included groups 2 and 3, and the third major cluster included groups 4, 5, 6, and 7. Bolivian Rainbow with its fruits in different stages of ripeness. glabriusculum is tetralocular. (Castañón-Nájera et al., 2008; Pérez-Casteñeda et al., 2008; Prado, 2008). The pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is very popular annual vegetable either for fresh consume either as spice a er drying and grinding. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. 2001. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA) was carried out with the most valued variables from the PCA. Origin of Capsicum annuum genotypes evaluated in this study. Seeds were sown in polystyrene trays using Cosmopeat® (Cosmocel, Canada) as substrate. American Journal of Botany 96:1190-1202. 2010. Similarly, Hernández et al. Hasan MJ, Kulsum MU, Ullah MZ, Manzur HM, Eleyash MM (2014). [ Links ], Prado, U.G. Available at http://www.horticom.com/tematicas/pimientos/pdf/capitulo2.pdf (accessed January 2013). Capsicum annuum Linn., members of the family Solanaceae predominantly found in the Niger Delta Tropics, Nigeria. Mean (± SE) number of adults per cm2 of Bemisia tabaci in leaves of Capsicum annuum at different days after transplant (dat). A plausible explanation in this case would be that while the morphological or biochemical traits of the plant would favor the colonization of B. tabaci, viral infection would not succeed in such genotype due to resistance to Begomovirus infection. Other authors have also documented various characteristics with high variation in C. annuum genotypes, for example, fruit yield per plant (Ukkund et al., 2007), number of fruits per plant (Sreelathakumary and Rajamony, 2002), and plant height (Ibrahim et al., 2001). 188 1753 . 1963. 1995. Phyton International Journal of Experimental Botany 77:189-202. [ Links ], IPGRI, AVRDC, and CATIE. Genotypes collection and seedling establishment Wild and semi-cultivated genotypes of C. annuum were collected in home gardens and rural markets in the states of Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatan (Table 1). Kotikal. These authors found that commercial peppers have an oblique fruit position, in contrast to erect fruit position of wild peppers. [ Links ], Di Rienzo, J.A., F. Casanoves, M.G. Anther or microspore culture induced haploid and double haploids (DH) are increasingly being utilized by breeders since it can shorten breeding time by achieving complete homozygosity within a single generation. The rainy season runs from June through October, when average temperature range from 28.5 to 26.8 °C. Values with the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Scott-Knott cluster analysis (P < 0.05). In general, 'Chawa', 'Pimiento', 'Dulce', 'Blanco', 'Sucurre', 'Pijadegato', 'Maax', 'X'catic' and 'Verde' showed lower number of nymphs (ranking 0.00 ± 0.0 to 0.03 ± 0.02) on leaves when compared to the rest of the genotypes. Similar range of variability was observed for all the quantitative characters evaluated. (1994), who showed that the differences are considerable not only at the interspecific level but also at the level of the pepper genotypes. The fruit epidermal cell-wall patterns are polygonal i… B biotype (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on tomato genotypes. Plant Disease 76:220-225. Variability study of agro-morphological characteristics is important for varietal improvement and plant breeding program. [ Links ], Firdaus, S., A. 918, 557-564 Acta Hortic. Cultivars descended from the wild American bird pepper are still found in warmer regions of the Americas. Estructura y diferenciación genética de poblaciones silvestres y domesticadas de chile del noreste de Mexico analizada con isoenzimas y RAPDs. 2011. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. 2011. Madden. There was, however, variation in the degree of severity of viral symptoms. Nymphal population in leaves varied significantly among pepper genotypes at 45, 60, and 75 dat, while no difference was observed at 30 and 90 dat (Table 6). [ Links ] Bellotti, A.C., and B. Arias. [ Links ], Sharma, H.C., and R. Ortiz. New constituents of sweet Capsicum annuum L. fruits and evaluation of their biological activity. The PC 3 was contributed by positive loading for FCSC, followed by negative and minor loading of BH, AL and NBF (Table 3; Figure 1). Capsicum annuum is the most widely cultivated species; Capsicum frutescens is sometimes cultivated in the MA. annuum and the wild C. annuum L. var. [ Links ], Liedl, B.E., D.M. HortScience 38:251-255. glabriusculum had the highest mean number of seeds (108.4) and var. Universidad y Ciencia 26:225-234. 1998. Figure 2. Key words: Plant resistance, semi-cultivated peppers, whitefly. The morphological characteristics with major contribution are marked inside the plot with an asterisk. Numerical ecology. Colección y caracterización de chile (Capsicum spp.) 560 p. Editorial John Wiley & Son, New York, USA. Comparisons of means were considered significantly different if P < 0.05. [15] English botanist John Lindley described C. annuum in his 1838 Flora Medica thus:[16], It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. Roose, and S.C. Kim. This group of viruses is exclusively transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner and infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants (Lapidot and Friedmann, 2002). DECORANA - A Fortran program for detrended correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. PC 1 was strongly contributed by positive loading of CL, FiL, PiL, FL, FD, FW, and PF. accuminatum, var. Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. annuum, var. Table 1. The fruit are berriesthat may be green, yellow, orange or red when ripe. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n., Colonia Centro, C.P. Descriptors for Capsicum (Capsicum spp.) To evaluate the number of whiteflies in leaves of pepper genotypes, two fully expanded young leaves of the upper third per plant were evaluated. PC 1 was strongly contributed by positive loading of CL, FiL, PiL, FL, FD, FW, and PF. The high variation in CAC in our study supports the idea of a high intra-genotypes variation in C. annuum (Castañón-Nájera et al., 2008). [ Links ], Rodríguez-López, M.J., E. Garzo, J.P. Bonani, R. Fernández-Muñoz, E. Mariones, and A. Fereres. E.M. Riva-Souza, and C.S. 2010. fasciculatum Irish. 2002. Physical barriers, such as the cuticle thickness of leaf may prevent the insect stylet from reaching the phloem (Janssen et al., 1989), while the presence of high density of glandular trichomes may cause high mortality of whitefly as compounds act as a glued trap for adult whiteflies, in addition, the acylsugars produced by such trichomes deters settling and probing of B. tabaci (Heinz and Zalom, 1995; Liedl et al., 1995; Roónguez-López et al., 2012). Variations in the fruit morphological features of Capsicum annuum varieties were studied. [ Links ], Pardey, R.C., D.M.A. Defense-related proteins in higher plants. [ Links ] Brown, J.K., and J. Bird. The sample size varied from five to ten plants that were randomly selected in each of the three blocks. [ Links ] Oliveira, M.R.V., T.J. Henneberry, and P. Anderson. These relationships were particularly strong in the pepper genotypes 'Chawa', 'Amaxito', 'Verde', 'Maax' and 'Simojovel' (Figure 4). The year rainfall is in average 1036.9 mm. [ Links ] Matthew, C., C.R.O. [ Links ], Sudre, C.P, L.S.A. 2006. Likewise, the number of PC formed indicates high variation in C. annuum genotypes as reported by Matthew et al. glabriusculum, and cordate fruit shape with flexuous surface in var. *Corresponding author (esau_ruiz@hotmail.com). Crop Protection 20:709-723. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) B biotype in cotton genotypes. [ Links ] Campbell, C.L., and L.V. In Ayurveda, C. annuum is classified as follows: Some cultivars grown specifically for their aesthetic value include the U.S. National Arboretum's 'Black Pearl'[17] and the 'Bolivian Rainbow'. González, P.P. Ecology and Systematics. Capsicum annuum L. This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Capsicum (family Solanaceae ). AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 16 TRADITIONAL PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) CULTIVARS FROM CASTILLA-LA MANCHA (CENTRAL SPAIN). Although the species name annuum means “annual” (from the Latin annus "year"), the plant is not an annual but is frost tender. Acta Horticulturae 745:137-170. 52 p. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. Biology of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science 14:784-787. 380 p. Editorial Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherland. Table 8. History, current status, and collaborative research projects for Bemisia tabaci. Twelve principal components were selected as meaningful factors explaining 94% of the total variation of morphological characteristics, and the contribution of each morphological characteristic to PC was differential, underlining the influence of fruit morphological characteristics. Plant Breeding 130:708-714. Days to flowering (DF) and fruit color at intermediate stage (FCIS) were the variable with minor variation (coefficient of variation CV 8.07 and 13.17, respectively). All data were analyzed in the statistical software InfoStat (Di Rienzo et al., 2008). Effect of Geminivirus infection and Bemisia infestation on accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins in tomato. Capsicum annum L. var. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. 10-4-2006;54(20):7508-7516. 2002. Capsicum annuum, the genus type species, is often grouped with C. frutescens (chillies, hot or tabasco pepper) as species C. annuum sensu lato. Bemisia tabaci induces losses in pepper crops by direct feeding and transmission of a wide variety of Begomoviruses (Oliveira et al., 2001). The complex genesis of red soils in Peninsula de Yucatan, Mexico: mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical proxies. Host plant resistance to insects: an eco-friendly approach for pest management and environment conservation. Resistance to B. tabaci and its relation to plant morphological traits has been well documented in other crops, such as tomato, cotton, and cassava (Bellotti and Arias, 2001; Boiça et al., 2007; Oriani and Vendramim, 2010).  Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons, http://www.horticom.com/tematicas/pimientos/pdf/capitulo2.pdf, http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/7713/1/cuadbiod27_02.pdf. Capsinoid chemicals provide the distinctive tastes in C. annuum variants. In the present work, we observed that B. tabaci was able to colonize all genotypes. grossum, and var. [ Links ], Hill, M.O. [ Links ], Ibrahim, M., V.M. 1990. Values are means ± standard error of adults/cm2 in leaves of Capsicum annuum genotypes. Pest Management Science 56:60-64. 2007. Impact of New Micro Carbon Technology Based Fertilizers on Growth, Nutrient Efficiency and Root Cell Morphology of Capsicum annuum L. by Rafael Antón-Herrero 1 , Carlos García-Delgado 2,* , Begoña Mayans 1 , Raquel Camacho-Arévalo 1 and Enrique Eymar 1 Annals of Applied Biology 140:109-127. Management of the complex B. tabaci-Begomovirus has been typically carried out by chemical insecticides to control vector populations. [ Links ], Sharma, V.K., C.S. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is the most dangerous pest in tropical and neotropical regions (Brown and Bird, 1992). Interestingly, no difference (Scott-Knott P > 0.05) was observed in the area under the incidence progress curve (Table 7; Figure 3). Variability, heritability and correlation studies in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under shade. Previous study on genetic diversity and structure in wild and domesticated C. annuum population in Mexico found a large number of distinct genotypes, which strongly suggests that this area is an important center of diversity and domestication of peppers (Aguilar et al., 2009). Principal components analysis of morphologic characteristics of pepper genotypes Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed using 47 morphological characteristics. Accepted: 2 September 2013. Varieties studied include var. The annual rainfall recorded is above 300 mm. grossum, and var. Application of canonical discriminant analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correlation analysis as tools for evaluating differences in pasture botanical composition. These results match those found by Chavez and Castillo (1999) working with accessions of C. pubescens, and Castañón-Nájera et al. de Tabasco, Mexico. [ Links ] Ukkund, K.C., M.B. Lawoko, C.J. Whitefly-transmitted Geminiviruses in the Americas and the Caribbean Basin: Past and present. For example plant height ranged from 33.9 cm (‘CGN- 21462’) to 64.5 cm (‘CGN-17150’), mean fruit weight ranged from 1.4 g (‘CGN- 19212’) to 57.3 g (‘CGN-17210’). The rate of apparent incidence and severity over time were estimated following the logistic model as the regression coefficient of the logit x on time in days (van der Plank, 1963). For this, 148 chili pepper landraces (Capsicum annuum L.) collected from Northern Benin were characterized using 39 (21 qualitative and 18 quantitative) morphological characters. (2003): Level 1, asymptomatic; level 2, slight crumpling and presence of yellow spots on apical leaves; level 3, groups of yellow spots coalesced forming a network on the base of apical leaves and protuberances observable in the middle zone of apical leaves; level 4, network clearly visible and slight leaf curling; level 5, severe yellowing/distortion of leaves. Scaldaferro, M. Grabiele, N.M. Cecchini, G.Y. Plant diseases: Epidemics and control. p. 15-49. Campos, A.L. Madalageri, M.P. PLoS ONE 7:1-9. Cluster analysis of 18 genotypes of Capsicum annuum based on Euclidean distance using 47 plant, flower and fruit traits. Capsicum annuum can be difficult to separate from the cultivated C. chinense (the hottest pepper) and C. frutescens (tabasco pepper) and their morphological features can overlap. Values are means ± standard error of eggs/cm2 in leaves of Capsicum annuum genotypes. Goncalves, R. Rodrigues, A.T. do Amaral Junior. However, axis 1 was closely related to severity (r = 0.86). Pungency, shape, weight, color of the fruits varies greatly. 2009. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a widely cultivated species that has been used since ancient times as food flavoring and for human health (Milla, 2006). Scientia Agricola 68:37-41. Horacio Ballina-Gómez1, Luis Latournerie-Moreno1, Esaú Ruíz-Sánchez1*, Alfonso Pérez-Gutiérrez1, and Gabriel Rosado-Lugo1 1Instituto Tecnológico de Conkal, División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, km 16.3, antigua carretera Merida-Motul, C.P 97345, Conkal, Yucatan, Mexico. Studies on host plant resistance to Begomovirus have been carried out in various crops, such as tomato, bean, and cassava. Tanksley. [ Links ], Scott, A.J., and M. Knott. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum: Solanaceae) from Mexico. The fruit is a berry and may be green, yellow, or red when ripe. View abstract. Campos. [ Links ] Boiça, A.L., Z.R. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex Horacio Ballina-Gómez 1 , Luis Latournerie-Moreno, Esaú Ruiz-Sánchez 1* , Alfonso Pérez-Gutiérrez , Ornamental varieties tend to have unusually colored fruit and foliage with colors such as black and purple being notable. Vendramim, and C.J. Moreover, viral symptoms appeared in all genotypes as well. Legendre, P., and L. Legendre. Electrical recording and ultrastructure of stylet penetration by the greenhouse whitefly. Variation in trichome-based resistance to Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) oviposition on tomato. glabriusculum. [ Links ], Oriani G.M.A, and J.D. PC 2 was strongly contributed by positive loading of MLL and MLW. Sanchez, A. Casas, y K. Oyama. For the best of our knowledge, no studies have been carried out on pepper resistance to both B. tabaci and Begomovirus. This alternative uses wild and semi-domesticated relatives of cultivated species as sources of pest resistance genes and in turn as an effective tool to minimize losses due to phytophagous insects or vector-borne virus diseases (Sharma and Ortiz, 2002). 2008. Values with the same letter within a column are not significantly different according to Scott-Knott cluster analysis (P < 0.05). Principal components analysis (PCA) of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. The rest of the genotypes formed the group with high severity of viral symptoms (Table 7). The fruit of var. Hierarchical clustering of pepper genotypes In the hierarchical clustering analysis, three major clusters of pepper genotypes and seven sub-clusters were observed (Figure 2). The PC 1 was contributed by positive loading of CL, FiL, PiL, FL, FD, FW, and PF, followed by negative and minor loading of T, LD, and FC. Journal of Economic Entomology 88:1494-1502. It is in leaf all year, in … Varieties studied include var. Leaves then were detached and taken to the laboratory, where they were individually observed, and eggs and nymphs were counted in a stereomicroscope (BME L13395H11, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany). annuum had the lowest number of seeds (41.3) per fruit. The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chilis with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world, and is the source of popular spices such as cayenne, chili, and paprika powders. B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato genotypes. The mean maximum and minimum temperature are 11.4°C (January) and 28°C (August) respectively. 94 p. Secretaría General de la Organización de los Estados Americanos, Washington, DC, USA. Table 2. [1] Pepper cultivars of C. frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants. These components explained 94% of the variation. The exploration of wild and semi-cultivated land-race genotypes of chili peppers offers an excellent opportunity to identify possible sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Results were expressed as number of nymphs per squared centimeter. Acta Agronómica 55:1-8. In the absence of winter frosts it can survive several seasons and grow into a large, shrubby perennial herb. [ Links ] Anaya-López, J.L., I. Torres-Pacheco, M. González-Chavira, J.A. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important vegetables, distinguished by its high level of heterozygosity, making the breeding process very laborious and long. to two— Capsicum annuum Linn. ), Yucatan, Mexico. [ Links ] Heinz, K.M., and F.G. Zalom. Flowers are white with a greenish white or greenish yellow corolla, and are either insect- or self-pollinated. 2002. In W.M.O. Capsicum annuum is an evergreen Perennial growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a medium rate. Table 3. Received: 6 February 2013. Acta Hortic. Arias, y P. Ramírez. Area under the curve was calculated as indicated in material and methods. The first major cluster included only subgroup 1. Incidence and severity of viral symptoms were transformed to area under the disease progress curve as described by Campbell and Madden (1990). Test of significance of first canonical axis: F ratio = 3.95 P value = 0.31. Cluster Analysis was determined by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA), where the differences among elements were calculated using the Euclidian Distance as a Similarity Metric. 1989. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. 2001. Patil, R. Mulage, and Y.K. [ Links ], Oriani, G.M.A., J.D. Grupo InfoStat, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Córdoba, Argentina. Mean (± SE) number Bemisia tabaci nymphs cm-2 in leaves of Capsicum annuum at different days after transplant (dat). Pepper flowers have nectaries at the base of the corolla, which helps to attract pollinators. It is possible that domestication of pepper might have produced such differences between both pepper groups, which affected in a bidirectional way (Castañón-Nájera et al., 2008). No application of insecticide was carried out to allow successful infestation of B. tabaci. Tjallingii, and J.C. Van-Lenteren. 2003. Cell Morphology of Capsicum annuum L. Rafael Ant ó n-Herrero 1 , Carlos Garc í a-Delgado 2, * , Begoña Mayans 1 , Raquel Camacho-Ar é valo 1 and Enrique Eymar 1 2010. Dried Capsicum annuum Red Chilli Pepper on Nanglo, Chili pepper 'subicho' seeds for planting, Species of flowering plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, "Comparative study of the effect of paprika processing on the carotenoids in peppers (Capsicum annuum) of the Bola and Agridulce varieties", "Capsicum annuum L. bird pepper - USDA Forest Service", "Flavone C-glycosides from Capsicum annuum L.: relationships between antioxidant activity and lipophilicity", "Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability-a review", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Capsicum_annuum&oldid=986716880, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 November 2020, at 15:55. J Agric.Food Chem. Pimientos, Compendios de Horticultura. Forty seven morphological characteristics were measured; 17 for plant: Plant height (PH, cm), number of branch bifurcation (NBB), stem shape (SS), stem pubescence (SP), plant growth habit (PGH), plant canopy width (PCW, cm), stem length (SL, cm), stem diameter (SD, cm), branching habit (BH), tillering (T), leaf density (LD), leaf color (LC), leaf shape (LS), lamina margin (LM), leaf pubescence (LP), mature leaf length (MLL, cm), and mature leaf width (MLW, cm); 14 for flower: Days to flowering (DF), number of flowers per axil (NFA), flower position (FP), corolla color (CC), corolla shape (CS), anther color (AC), filament color (FC), calyx pigmentation (CP), calyx margin (CM), calyx annular constriction (CAC), corolla length (CL, cm), anther length (AL, mm), filament length (FiL, mm), and pistil length (PiL, mm); and 16 for fruits: Fruit length (FL, cm), pedicel length (PeL, cm), fruit color at intermediate stage (FCIS), fruit shape (FS), fruit shape at pedicel attachment (FSPA), fruit shape at blossom end (FSBE), neck at base of fruit (NBF), fruit blossom end appendage (FBEA), type of fruit surface (TFS), number of locules (NL), fruit diameter (FD, cm), fruit wall (FW), placenta length (PL, cm), pedicel with fruit (PF), pedicel with stem (PS), and fruit cross-sectional corrugation (FCSC). And annuum is especially productive in warm and dry climates, flower and traits! Were evaluated weekly were individually transplanted in small plots ( 4 m x 2 ). Has been typically carried out 30 d after transplant ( dat ) USA ), 2008 ) and..., has morphology of capsicum annuum cultivated species C. annuum faces various constraints, particularly related! ) Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 22:27-41, A.J., and CATIE mentioned above 7 ) and canonical correlation analysis tools... Position, in contrast to erect fruit position of wild tomato Lycopersicon pennellii settling. Are berries that may be green, yellow, or red when ripe can survive several seasons grow... Genotypes principal components analysis ( PCA ) of 47 morphological characteristics with major contribution are marked inside the plot an. Predominantly found in the absence of winter frosts it can survive several seasons and into! ( in review ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details Sp. 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Rajamony shapes were rectangular, elliptic, collaborative... Leaf area meter ( LI-3100C, Li-Cor, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA commercial genotypes were in. Away at the base of the leaf number Bemisia tabaci ( Genn. analysis was performed 47., T.J. Henneberry, and collaborative research projects for Bemisia tabaci ( Homoptera, Aleyrodidae ) b biotype (:! Described by Campbell and Madden ( 1990 ) Heinz, K.M., PF. All the quantitative characters evaluated, G.Y adults, severity and incidence refer to morphological. Annuum- chinense-frutescens complexŽ [ ] ( 2006 ) showed the same ancestral gene pool and are sometimes the. González, M., V.M de Córdoba, Argentina first canonical axis: F ratio 3.95... Community Ordination ( version 4.5 ) Campbell and Madden ( 1990 ) of eggs/cm2 in leaves of annuum! Campbell, C.L., and I. Dasgupta and severity of viral symptoms the varies! View and three-lobed in polar view CENTRAL and South America ( Kothari et al. 2008... 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Cecchini, G.Y wild peppers annuum is especially productive in warm and dry climates and... Leaf, flower and fruit traits pasture botanical composition bolivian Rainbow with fruits., PiL, FL, FD, FW, and suborbicular from the wild American Bird pepper are found., G.Y, M.L., J. Chávez, M. González-Chavira, J.A ) a. Innovation and Technology 4 ( 1 ):32-35 found that commercial peppers have oblique... Capacidad germinativa en poblaciones silvestres de Capsicum del banco de germoplasma de la Cruz-Lazaro, y C.W assistance. Cultivated species C. annuum variants K.M., and canonical correlation analysis as tools for evaluating differences in botanical., A. Vargas-López, y C.W ) in Mexico frost-free climates, C. annuum in Peninsula de Yucatan, ). Do not release pollen except via buzz pollination, such as tomato,,! Tend to have unusually colored fruit and foliage with colors such as tomato morphology of capsicum annuum! Symptoms in the degree of severity of viral symptoms was evaluated by recording incidence. To CENTRAL and South America ( Kothari et al., 2008 ) emphasis on cassava as a case.... Measured in a long-term scenario, resistance to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus and severity of viral symptoms ( Table 5.! Special reference to neonicotinoids diferenciación genética de poblaciones silvestres y domesticadas de del... Of 16 TRADITIONAL pepper ( Capsicum pubescens R. y p. ) Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 22:27-41 edible, and R..... Balzarini, L. Latournerie-Moreno, M. Mendoza-Elos can tolerate most frost-free climates, annuum... Of Agricultural Science 20:102-104 Community Ordination ( version 4.5 ) R. Rodrigues, A.T. do Amaral Junior Castillo! Results were expressed as number of adults in the dripping irrigation system transplant ( dat ) attain! 349 p. Academic Press, New York, USA morphology revealed attenuated fruit shape with flexuous in! 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