During Frederick's childhood, his mother brought him many of the treasures of the Enlightenment. Frederick was almost certainly gay, and, remarkably, was very open about his sexuality after his ascension to the throne, retreating to his estate in Potsdam where he conducted several affairs with male officers and his own valet, writing erotic poetry celebrating the male form and commissioning many sculptures and other works of art with distinct homoerotic themes. However, he was also known to be a cultured, art-loving man; he commissioned the construction of the Sanssouci palace, played the flute … He was an enlightened monarch who wanted to apply reason to affairs of state in order to benefit the people. He lived from January 24, 1712, until August 17, 1786. A man of many facets, Frederick was also a supporter of the arts, commissioning buildings, paintings, literature, and music. Hitler and Napolean. Frederick’s military successes and expansion of Prussian power led indirectly to the establishment of the German Empire in the late 19th century (through the efforts of Otto von Bismarck), and thus in some ways to the two World Wars and the rise of Nazi Germany. Frederick struck preemptively, invading Saxony, and with his ally Great Britain started the Seven Years War. He became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz"). Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, served as empress of Russia for more than three decades in the late 18th century after overthrowing her husband, Peter III. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Over the next thirty-two years, Frederick would use the military prowess of the Prussian Army and his own strategic and political genius to reclaim the entirely of Prussia, finally declaring himself King of Prussia in 1772 after decades of warfare. Unlike in every way, Frederick's parents sought to raise him in their own, if totally different, images. With the goal of a united Prussia, Frederick lost little time plunging Europe into war. Back in the 18th century, Frederick II of Prussia (also known as Frederick the Great) was looking for ways to feed his nation and lower the price of bread. Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm; 16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "the Great Elector" (der Große Kurfürst) because of his military and political achievements. Frederick inherited an army that was not only large, it had also been shaped into the premier fighting force in Europe at the time by his military-minded father. He was born to Frederick William I, and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. Frederick the Great Frederick II, also known as Frederick the Great, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.When his father Frederick William ascended to throne in 1713, that made little Frederick the crown prince and next successor in line. Domestically, Frederick's Enlightenment influence was more evident. Although most often remembered as a warrior, Frederick actually lost more battles than he won, and was often saved by political events outside his control—and the unparalleled excellence of the Prussian Army. ‘Der Alte Fritz’ (meaning ‘Old Fritz’) as often called by the people of Prussia, he was successful in reorganizing the Prussian army. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Year's War, was a distinguished tactician who gained much of his fame for his many victories against the far larger Austrian army. Also, instead of creating an empire that was ideal for the monarch, he was a servant of the state, meaning he … He became the head of an empire that was expanded by his son and successor, Alexander the Great. His … his hard-working ethos of service to the state to fulfill the…. Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, was the eldest surviving son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, sister of George II of England. In fact, when Frederick ascended to the throne in 1740, he inherited an army of 80,000 men, a remarkably large force for such a small kingdom. He then proceeded to invade key areas, forcing Maria Theresa to cede almost all of Silesia by 1745. Frederick the Great was the first ruler to be able to unify Germany. Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1712–1786). Frederick was born into the House of Hohenzollern, a major German dynasty. Frederick was a well-known patron of the arts, which brought him the love of his nobility. Sensing weakness in the Austrian Empire, Frederick deceived Habsburg Queen Maria Theresa to allow his armies to occupy Lower Silesia in exchange for protection from France, Spain and Bavaria. The eldest son of Frederick William I of Prussia and of Princess Sophie Dorothea of Hanover, Frederick II was born in Berlin on Jan. 24, 1712. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. Frederick the Great had abolished judicial torture, except flogging for desertion. Oscar Hammerstein II collaborated with Richard Rodgers on popular musicals such as ‘Oklahoma!,’ ‘South Pacific,’ ‘Carousel,’ ‘The King and I’ and ‘The Sound of Music.’. He is one of the most important European leaders in history, a long-reigning king whose personal beliefs and attitudes shaped the modern world. They were caught and arrested for treason, however, and Katte was beheaded in Frederick's presence. Although Prussia had been an influential and important part of the Holy Roman Empire for centuries, under Frederick’s rule the small kingdom rose to the status of a Great European Power and had a lasting effect on European politics in general and Germany specifically. Pope John Paul II made history in 1978 by becoming the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years. The couple enjoyed a political marriage and not much else. He is best known for his brilliance in military campaigning and organization of Prussian armies. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz"). Frederick ascended the throne upon the death of his father in 1740, and abandoned peaceful pursuits to make his place in the geopolitical intrigue of 18th-century Europe. When he came of age, Frederick was forced into the army and set on a course of military science and governance. We strive for accuracy and fairness. A battle during the Seven Years War In a series of battles to the death, Frederick lost territory, then gained it, then lost it again. Without Frederick, Germany might never have become a world power. In the film, he is referred to as "the great and illustrious Frederick" and his army is both praised and criticized, as in this quotation: "During the five years which the war had now lasted, the gre… Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1712–1786), king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. “The story of Frederick’s youth is a known chronicle of suffering.” Frederick the Great’s father laid the foundation for Frederick’s legendary military exploits by assembling a well-drilled professional army for Prussia. Hohenzollerns became kings, dukes, and emperors in the region from the establishment of the dynasty in the 11th century until the overthrow of the German aristocracy in the wake of World War I in 1918. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. Frederick the Great: Flutist and Composer Andrea Kapell Loewy II, KNOWN AS FREDERICK THE GREAT, WAS THE ELDEST SURVIVING son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, sister of George II of England. Though their relationship was strained due to the elder’s strict temperament, Frederick’s father was an extraordinary military leader, also known as the “Soldier-King.” Born in 1712, Frederick William II, known as Frederick the Great, was the third Hohenzollern King of Prussia. He was king of Prussia in the eighteenth century and he was a brilliant reformer, statesman and administrator. He was able to expand his kingdom at the expenses of his neighbours and he was to turn Prussia into a major European power. Frederick ruled for a period of 46 years in the 18th century and during his time as a monarch of Prussia, the country won significant military victories. Considered by some to be one of the greatest generals in history, he was an excellent commander, developing Prussia into a military power. Although Frederick did not gain territory, the ensuing treaty allowed him to retain Silesia and made him popular throughout the many German-speaking territories. the first servant of the state. Frederick William was authoritarian and quick-tempered; Sophia was well-educated and loved the richness of life. how did Frederick consider his role as…. His Father Was the Worst. Following the war, Frederick was hailed as a military genius and became known as 'Frederick the Great.' A devotee of the principles of the Enlightenment, Frederick attempted to portray himself as a benevolent tyrant, a man who brooked no argument with his authority but who could be relied on to better the lives of his people. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power. Frederick Russell Burnham, American scout and world-traveling adventurer known for his service to the British South Africa Company and to the British Army in colonial Africa, helped inspire the founding of the international Scouting Movement Frédéric Chopin, Polish composer, one of … He is the first Prussian king to use the title “King of Prussia” instead of “King in Prussia”. Frederick the Great was born in Berlin, under the name Frederick William II. In 1741, Prussia consisted of scattered territories across central Europe and few significant allies save for Great Britain. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Frederick also wrote a political […] Frederick the Great had modernized Prussia by enlisting help from experts and strengthening the country’s economy by raising tariff. When their plot was discovered, King Frederick William threatened to charge Frederick with treason and strip him of his status as Crown Prince, and then had Katte executed in front of his son. In 1733, Frederick married an Austrian Duchess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern. Although officially pious and supportive of religion (and tolerant, allowing a Catholic church to be built in officially protestant Berlin in the 1740s), Frederick was privately dismissive of all religions, referring to Christianity in general as an “odd metaphysical fiction.”, He was also almost shockingly racist, especially towards the Poles, who he regarded as almost subhuman and undeserving of respect, referring to them privately as “trash,” “vile,” and “dirty.”. Frederick was a talented musician and composed several pieces for the flute. Frederick wrote a history of the Great Northern Wars of Charles XII. During his childhood, he took much interest in the fine arts. This planted a seed of anti-Austrian sentiment in Frederick; he believed that Austria, long Prussia’s rival for influence in the crumbling Holy Roman Empire, was meddlesome and dangerous. In his role as a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he was Frederick IV (Friedrich IV.) He is often admired as one of the greatest tactical geniuses of all time. Although Frederick the Great was widely known as a tactical genius and a skillful military theorist, it was his domestic policies that made him known as Frederick the Great. One little-known fact is that after America defeated Britain, the Americans wrote offered, Frederick’s brother Prince Henry as the King of America. Although Frederick is never seen on screen, he is mentioned several times in Stanley Kubrick's 1975 film Barry Lyndon. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Born in Berlin in 1712, Frederick demonstrated an early interest and talent in music and French literature that … He died in 1786. https://www.biography.com/political-figure/frederick-ii. His father pardoned Frederick, but placed him as a junior official in local administration to learn the ways of government. Frederick William I was a brutal human being. During his time on the throne, Frederick increased Prussia's territories and military power. Frederick quickly separated from her and, for the rest of his life, showed no interest in women. Aside from economy, Frederick the Greatalso overhauled bureaucracy and civil service since 1760. He took too long to deploy his men and this allowed the Austrian to form up a line and in particular, it allowed the Austrian cavalry, to charge Frederick’s own cavalry. Despite believing German culture, in general, to be inferior to that of France or Italy, he worked to elevate it, establishing a German Royal Society to promote German language and culture, and under his rule, Berlin became a major cultural center of Europe. Frederick II inherited the Prussian throne in 1740 and established control of Silesia in 1745. Frederick II also known as ‘Frederick the Great’ was a powerful and influential King of Prussia whose reign witnessed several military victories expanding the territories of Prussia. Kaiser Wilhelm served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. In 1756, Austria, backed by France and Russia, tried to regain control of Silesia. Although Prussia had been an influential and important part of the Holy Roman Empire for centuries, under Frederick’s rule the small kingdom rose to the status of a Great European Power and had a lasting effect on European politics in general and … Born in 1712, Frederick William II, known as Frederick the Great, was the third Hohenzollern King of Prussia. Frederick the great's military conquests were idolized by German and French military dictators _____ and _____. However, the death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia placed advocate Peter III on the throne and Russia withdrew from the war. By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a … In 1746 Frederick the Great presented a musical theme he had written to composer Johann Sebastian Bach, who used it to develop a set of canons and … The Warrior King of Prussia, Atheist and gay, Frederick the Great was more radical than most leaders today, How keeping it in the family spelled the end of the line for the Hapsburg royal dynasty, Frederick William I of Prussia, The Soldier King. Finally, in 1730, at age 18, Frederick attempted to escape with childhood friend Hans Herman von Katte. Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images. However, he is best known as a great military leader. He earned the title of 'the Great Elector' If you search for the "The Great Elector" on the Internet, … He spent his early years with tutors, learning poetry, French culture, and the Greek and Roman classics. 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